ThreeFold FAQ

Table of Contents


Basic Facts

What is the the ThreeFold blockchain?

ThreeFold blockchain is the layer 0 infrastructure for an open source peer-to-peer (P2P) Internet owned by humanity.

What is the architecture of the ThreeFold Grid in simple terms?

Essentially, the ThreeFold Grid is composed of the people using it, the 3Node servers offering compute, storage and network resources, and the TF Chain, which is the blockchain of ThreeFold.

Middlewares are also used, such as GraphQL and GrixProxy, to get and organize data from the ThreeFold Chain. They help to make data available and to manage load.

3Nodes store workloads data and can report on their state to the TF Grid and to middlewares.

What is the difference between Internet capacity and connectivity? Does ThreeFold replace my Internet service provider (ISP)?

In simple terms, the Internet is composed of both capacity and connectivity. Capacity is where the data and resources are being handled, for example in servers. Connectivity is the infrastructure that transfer data and resources between servers. The latter is linked to the typical Internet service provider (ISP).

ThreeFold’s technology enables distributed capacity generation, but ThreeFold doesn’t deal in connectivity. 3nodes offer Internet capacity, but farmers still rely on connectivity provider like the usual Internet service provider (ISP).

What are the priorities of ThreeFold (the Three P of ThreeFold)? ThreeFold is a Planet first project, what does it mean?

ThreeFold is working for the Planet, the People and Profit, in this very order of importance. Planet comes first as it is our home to us all. A humane enterprise always has people before profit, and serious entrepreneurs know profit cannot be left out of the equation of a thriving project.

I want to help build the new Internet. How can I become a ThreeFold certified 3node partner?

Apply here to become a ThreeFold certified 3node partner.

How can I create a twin on the TF Grid?

There are 2 ways to create a twin:

You can create a twin via the ThreeFold Dashboard.

You can also create a twin via the ThreeFold Connect app. Indeed, a twin is automatically generated while creating a farm. Note that, in this case, the twin will be created on mainnet.

ThreeFold Communication

Is there a ThreeFold app for mobile?

Yes! ThreeFold Connect App (TF Connect App) is available for Android and iOS.

You can use this app to create a ThreeFold ID, a ThreeFold Wallet and also a ThreeFold Farm to link all your 3nodes. The ThreeFold Connect Wallet, with its Stellar payout address, can be used for transactions as well as to receive farming rewards. The News section gives you the latest information on the fast ThreeFold development and growth.

You can find links to the ThreeFold community at the bottom of the main page of the ThreeFold website.

Could we reach out someone for publishing research work on ThreeFold?

You can send an email to for publishing research on ThreeFold.

Who can I write to for a proposal? Where can I send a proposal email for a new partnership opportunity with ThreeFold?

You can mail your proposal to or write about your proposal on the ThreeFold Forum.

How can I track and follow the progress and development of ThreeFold?

There are two main places where you can track the progress of ThreeFold. ThreeFold is open source and its developments can be easily tracked on Github.

  • You can read about the ongoing ThreeFold Tech projects here.
  • You can read about the ongoing ThreeFold Foundation projects here.

Why do some forum posts need to be approved?

The configurations of the ThreeFold forum make so that some posts need approval, depending on where they are posted. Like posting from meta-sections, and some specific sections.

Also, note that certain posts can automatically get flagged for moderation based on their content.

The Technology of ThreeFold

What is a 3Node?

It is essentially a single server that makes up a larger network of servers which together form the ThreeFold Grid. Essentially any modern computer can be turned into a 3node (DIY Farming) and you can buy plug and play 3nodes as state of the art modern computer.

What is the difference between a 3node and a ThreeFold farm?

A 3node is a single server connected to the Grid. Each 3node is linked to a farm. A farm can be composed of multiple 3nodes.

What is Zero-OS from ThreeFold?

Zero-OS is a stateless and lightweight operating system designed to host anything that runs on Linux, in a decentralized way. Once installed, Zero-OS locks the hardware and dedicates its capacity to the People’s Internet via the ThreeFold Blockchain.

ThreeFold uses Quantum Safe Storage technology, what does it mean?

Quantum computers are theoretically capable of doing huge calculations in a short period of time. By this fact alone, it is a great potential threat to future online safety. ThreeFold solves this future problem before it even becomes a reality. Indeed, Zero-os can compress, encrypt, and disperse data across the Grid.

Quantum Safe File System (QSFS) allows for part of the storage to go down and it can self repair, however it’s still attached to a single VM and a single point of failure. Can a QSFS instance be reattached to another VM to recover it?

QSFS is built from storage devices which are distributed and decentralized.

The storage engine is a software running on a VM that can run everywhere. If the storage engine needs to run on a different VM the config needs to pushed to the new VM. In short, yes Quantum safe file system (QSFS) can be recovered on a different VM. It is not automated yet on Zero-OS. A video tutorial will be shared soon.

Where does the ThreeFold Explorer take its data from?

The ThreeFold Explorer takes its data from this website:

To explore Grid Proxy, you can use Swagger: You will then be able to query the TF Grid and extract data.

See the next Q&A for more information on Swagger.

How can I use the Gridproxy to query information on the TF Grid?

You can go to the Gridproxy Swagger index:

There you can query information such as information on a 3node.

For example, asking the Gridproxy for the nodeID 466, you get the following URL:

To get specific information, you can add parameters, for example:

When you know the URL representation of the query, you can simply use the URL directly on a web browser.

How can I see the stats of the ThreeFold Grid?

You can go to think link: to see the stats of the ThreeFold Grid.

You can also check this thread on the ThreeFold forum.

What is the difference between a seed phrase (mnemonics) and an HEX secret?

A seed phrase (also called mnemonics) is a set of words from a carefully selected pool that can be used to derive cryptographic secrets. A HEX secret is a more direct representation of such secret that the computer uses. In the case of an HEX secret, there is no extra information present to form complete words of the seed phrase.

In typical usage, multiple secrets can be derived from a seed phrase via a one-way operation. The secret and its derived public key are sufficient to do any cryptographic operation like signing transactions or encrypting data, but it can't be used to get back the words of the seed phrase.

Buying and Transacting TFT

How long does it take when you use the BSC-Stellar Bridge?

The bridge will process deposits/withdrawals within 48 hours.

On my website, users can donate TFT on the Stellar Chain. Is there a way for users on my website to easily track the total sum of TFT donated?

There is a simple way to do this. The Stellar Explorer has an embeddable widget that you can insert on any website, including WordPress.

Simply go to the account you’re interested in showing the balance of, look for “Balance History”, select TFT, and finally click the small icon next to the heading to reveal the embed code. In your WordPress page editor, in HTML mode, paste the embed code.

TF Connect App, TF Dashboard, GraphQL, Grix Proxy and Polkadot Substrate

Is there a way to create or import another wallet in TF Connect App?

The TF Connect App supports Stellar and TF Chain wallets. The app by default can create one wallet. To add any number of additional wallets, you must create a wallet on Stellar or TF Chain and then import it with the import function.

I created a farm on the TF Chain. On the TF Connect App Farmer Migration section, my farm is under Other v3 farms, is this normal?

Yes this is normal. Farms created on TF Chain instead of the TF Connect App will appear in Other v3 farms.

I am trying to access my wallet in the ThreeFold Connect App. It worked fine before, but now I just get a white screen. What does it mean and what can I do?

On the TF Connect App, when you get a white screen, it means that there is a connection issue. It can help to try other networks; maybe try switching between ethernet cable or wifi. Or you can also try it later when the connection might be more stable.

When I open the ThreeFold Connect App, I get the error: Error in initialization in Flagsmith. How can I fix this issue?

To fix this Flagsmith error message on the ThreeFold Connect app, you can try the following methods:

  • Check your internet connection
  • Update your phone current operating system (OS) version
  • Update the date and time on your phone

Apart form the ThreeFold Connect App Wallet, how can I check my TFT balance?

You can go on Stellar.Expert. With your wallet address, you will be able to see your transactions and wallet details.

Is it possible to export the transaction history of a wallet to a CSV file?

Yes, every blockchain has an explorer function and these explorer functions allow you to see transactions and export them. TFT is on 2 chains at the moment: Stellar and Polkadot.

For Stellar based TFT’s there is an explorer here: Enter you wallet address in the top left search box, and after pressing enter you should see every transaction related to your account.

If you are not deploying/doing things on the TF Grid (dev, test or mainnet) you will not have transferred any tokens to the TF Chain, therefore all your tokens/wallets will be on the Stellar Chain.

How can I use GraphQl to find information on the ThreeFold Grid?

To find information on the ThreeFold Grid with GraphQL, go to this link. On the left menu, choose the parameters you want to search and write the necessary information, if needed, then click on the Play button in the middle section, at the top.

Here's an example of a query, where we want to find all the farms containing "duck" in their name.

query MyQuery { farms(where: {name_contains: "duck"}) { name farmID } }

This code can be written automatically if you simply select the proper parameters in the left menu. For the previous example, we had to click on "farms", then "where", and then "name_contains". After clicking on "name_contains", you need to add the words you are looking for, in this example we had "duck". Further down the menu, we simply had to click on "farmID" and "name", and then click the Play button. The results of the query appear on the right screen.

The links for the Development, Test and Main Networks are the following:

How can I find 3Nodes with IPv6 addresses?

You can use GraphQL for such queries.

Use the following code to search for 3Nodes with IPv6 addresses. Enter the following code on the middle window and click on the "Play" button.

query MyQuery {
  publicConfigs {
    node {

The 3nodes with IPv6 addresses will appear on the right window.

For more information on how to use Graph QL, read this Q&A.

How can I use GraphQL to see contracts on my 3Nodes?

Go to ThreeFold's GraphQL and write the following query:

query MyQuery {
  nodeContracts(where: {state_eq: Created, nodeID_eq: 42}) {
    resourcesUsed {

This will show you contracts on the 3Node as well as resources used. You can play with the different parameters.

How can I see the farm associated with a node?

query MyQuery {
  nodes(where: {nodeID_eq: 57}) {

How can I use Grid Proxy to find information on the ThreeFold Grid and 3Nodes?

To find information on the ThreeFold Grid with GraphQL, you need to write this URL:, followed by your specific query. Here's an example if we wanted to see all the available farm on the TF Grid that has "duck" in its name:

The Grid Proxy is appropriate for high volume application. You can find the parameters to be written in the URL when visiting the GraphQL explorer.

Who is hosting GraphQL and Grid Proxy on the ThreeFold Grid?

GraphQL and Grid Proxy are hosted by ThreeFold for everyone to use.

Note that it is also possible to run your own instance of those tools.

What is the difference between uptime, status and power state?

There are three distinctly named endpoints or fields that exist in the back end systems:

  • Uptime
    • number of seconds the node was up, as of it's last uptime report. This is the same on GraphQL and Grid Proxy.
  • Status
    • this is a field that only exists on the Grid Proxy, which corresponds to whether the node sent an uptime report within the last 40 minutes.
  • Power state
    • this is a field that only exists on GraphQL, and it's the self reported power state of the node. This only goes to "down" if the node shut itself down at request of the Farmerbot.

I do not remember the name (ThreeFold 3bot ID) associated with my seed phrase on the ThreeFold Connect app. Can I recover my TF Connect app account with only the seed phrase and not the name (3bot ID) associated with it?

If you forgot the name associated with your seed phrase on the TF Connect app, you can always create a new identity (ThreeFold 3bot ID) and import your wallet using the old seed phrase.

Since the Connect App is also used for identity and authentication, you need both the name (3bot ID) and seed phrase to fully recover your account. The wallet is only linked to the seed phrase and not the name (3bot ID).


TF Grid Functionalities

What are the type of storage available on TF Grid?

There’s two type of storage that van de used on the TF Grid.

  1. VM which has a virtual disk. The virtual disk is a straightforward volume on a local hard disk. Everything stored on this virtual disk is stored only on this virtual (and thus physical) disk. Delete the VM and the virtual disk and the content is gone.
  2. Quantum safe storage. Quantum safe storage uses a “Storage Engine” that parts, compresses, encrypts and then mathematically describes the data.

Deployments on the ThreeFold Grid

Does the ThreeFold Grid charge the total resources rented or it only charges the resources used during deployment?

Billing is based on how many resources you reserve, not how much you use them. For this reason, it can be a good idea to deploy the minimim resources needed per project.

Do I pay for Internet traffic while deploying workloads on IPv4, IPv6 or Planetary Network?

You do pay for internet traffic while deploying on the ThreeFold Grid. It is calculated during deployment and paid with ThreeFold tokens (TFT).

Note that the private overlay network traffic is not billed.

What is the monthly cost for an IPv4 or an IPv6 public address on the ThreeFold Grid?

The cost for an IPv4 public address is around 3$/month (USD).

For an IPv6 address, there is no cost.

What are the differences between a container, a micro virtual machine and a full virtual machine (VM)?

The following is a list of certain features related to containers as well as full and micro virtual machines.

  • Container
    • generally designed to run a single application
    • doesn't need to include a full operating system
    • relies on the kernel of the host system, no hypervisor needed
    • isolated from the rest of the host system for security and can be limited in resources used
    • examples: on the Playground, we have Kubernetes and Caprover, which are both environments that host containers
  • Micro VM
    • a container image promoted to run as a VM by pairing with a generic kernel
    • more isolated than a container, thus more secure
    • generally lighter than a full VM
    • can be created from any Docker container image by uploading it to the TF Hub
    • examples: on the Playground, we have Ubuntu 20.04, Alpine-3, CentOS-8 and more.
  • Full VM
    • contains a complete operating system including kernel
    • capable of anything that can be done with a Linux server
    • compatible with any guides and tutorials written for the same version of the distribution they are running
    • normally contains systemd, unlike containers which normally do not
    • can load kernel modules or replace the kernel entirely, so has best compatibility
    • generally heavier than micro VM
    • examples: on the Playground, we have Ubuntu 18.04, 20.04, 22.04 and more

Note that you can run Kubernetes on a micro VM and you can run a very minimal operating system in a full VM. There are many possibilities when using those technologies.

What is a 3Node gateway? How can I configure a 3Node as a gateway node?

A 3Node becomes a gateway when a ThreeFold farmer adds a public IP address to the node itself on the ThreeFold Dashboard. In doing so, the IP address is then handed over to the base operating system of the node itself. The IP address can then be used in the overall functions of the TF Grid.

Note that this process differs from when an IP address that has been added to a farm is deployed with a workload in order for that workload to be accessible on the Internet.

To configure a 3Node as a gateway node, you need a public IP block from your internet service provider (ISP).

You can configure a 3Node as a gateway node on the TF mainnet, TF testnet and TF devnet. You thus need to choose the correct TF Dashboard link (main, test, dev).

To configure a 3Node as a gateway node, follow these steps:

  • Configure your DNS records
    • Type: A
      • Name: <YOUR_SUBDOMAIN>
      • Value: <YOUR_IPv4_ADDRESS>
    • Type: NS
      • Name: _acme-challenge.<YOUR_SUBDOMAIN>
    • Type: CNAME
      • Value: <YOUR_SUBDOMAIN>
    • Type: AAAA
      • Name: <YOUR_SUBDOMAIN>
      • Value: <YOUR_IPv6_ADDRESS>
  • Configure your 3Node parameters on the TF Dashboard
    • Go to the ThreeFold Dashboard
    • Go to the section Portal
    • Go to the subsection Farms
    • Choose the 3Node you want to turn into a gateway node and click on Actions (Add a public config) on the right
    • Enter the necessary information and click Save
      • IPV4: Enter the IPv4 address of your public IP block
      • Gateway: Enter the gateway of your public IP block
      • IPV6: Enter the IPv6 address of your public IP block
      • Gateway IPV6: Enter the gateway of your public IP block

Once this is done, you should see the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses in the section PUB of your 3Node screen.

To learn more about this process, watch this great video.

When connecting remotely with SSH, I get the following error: "WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED!...". What can I do to fix this?

If you've already done an SSH connection on your computer, the issue is most probably that the "host key has just been changed". To fix this, try one of those two solutions:

  • Linux and MAC:
    • sudo rm ~/.ssh/known_hosts
  • Windows:
    • rm ~/.ssh/known_hosts

To be more specific, you can remove the probematic host:

  • Windows, Linux and MAC:
    • ssh-keygen -R <host>

Once this is done, you should be able to SSH into your 3Node deployment.

How can I remove one host from known_hosts?

You can write the following command

ssh-keygen -R hostname

Where hostname would be the IPv4 or IPv6 address for example. In the case of the ThreeFold Grid, it can also be the Planetary Network address.

How can I add ThreeFold peers in the Yggdrasil configuration file?

In the file /etc/yggdrasil.conf, write the following in the "Peers" section:

 Peers: [
    # Threefold Lochrist
    # GreenEdge

How can I see Yggdrasil/Planetary Network's peers?

On MAC and Linux, write the following line in the terminal:


On Windows, one of the two following lines should work:


These are the general location of Yggdrasil. It can change depending on how you installed Yggdrasil.

How can I ping an Yggdrasil IP or IPv6 address?

Usually, using the command ping works.

If the typical ping doesn't work, try this instead: ping6

For example, the following will send 2 pings:

ping6 -c 2 yggdrasil_address

Is there a way to test if I am properly connected to the Yggdrasil network (Planetary Network)?

To check if you are properly connected to the Yggdrasil network, try reaching this website:


If you can reach this website, it means that you are properly connected.

For more information on how to connect to Yggrasil (and the Planetary Network), read this guide.

How can I change the username of my SSH key?

In the terminal, write the following line:

ssh-keygen -C newname

Make sure to replace "newname" by the name you want.

What is ThreeFold's stance on sharded workload? Will ThreeFold embrace and move towards distributed data chunks or stay with the one deployment, one node model?

The ThreeFold Grid is basically agnostic when it comes to how you structure your deployment.

If you want to put all your storage and compute on one node and lose everything if it goes down, you can do so.

If you want a highly distributed and fault tolerant system with high availability where data is never lost, you can also do so. You could build an architecture with single nodes running single workloads as the building blocks.

Containerized micro service architectures running on e.g. Kubernetes are basically the way that compute is being "sharded" already in the mainstream of IT, especially at large scales. Such applications fit well on the ThreeFold Grid today, since they account for the possibility that individual nodes may fail. However, many applications aren't built this way and it takes work to adapt them.

Self driving and self healing IT is one of the core concepts of ThreeFold. What we've built so far is an excellent foundation for making this reality. Some additional features might come into TF Chain and the network itself to enable such features. That being said, a lot is already possible using the existing system. It's just a matter of gluing things together in the right way.

Tutorials and Guides

What is the minimum amount of TFT to deploy a Presearch node? How can I get a TFT discount when I deploy a Presearch node?

The minimum amount of TFT that needs to be in your ThreeFold Profile before you can deploy a Presearch node is 2 TFT. But this would not last very long.

To benefit from the biggest reduction in price (-60%), you need to have a sufficient amount of TFT in your wallet. The TFT is not locked and simply needs to be present in your wallet.

For the capacity of a Presearch node, the amount is around 5000 TFT, covering 3 years that the workload could run.

Note that a Presearch node requires about 3 days to stabilize.

Can I use the same seed phrase for my mainnet and testnest accounts? How can I transfer my TFT from mainnet to testnet or vice versa?

Yes, you can use the same seed phrase for you main and testnet accounts. They will have the same address on each chain but they are really separate accounts. It is much like using the same wallet on Ethereum and BSC for example.

To transfer your TFT from mainnet to testnet or vice versa, you need to send your TFT to the Stellar chain first. Let's say you want to transfer TFT from the mainnet to the testnet. Here are the steps:

  • Open your mainnet profile on the mainnet Dashboard, on the left menu, choose Portal and then Swap. Click the button Withdraw. Send your TFTs from the mainnet address to your Stellar address.

  • Open your testnet profile on the testnet Dashboard, on the left menu, choose Portal and then Swap. Click the button Deposit. Send your TFTs from your Stellar address to the testnet address. You can use the QR code option to make the transfer.

To go from testnet to mainnet, simply use the URLs in the opposite order.

Note that the fees are of 1 TFT per transfer.

Do I need a full or micro virtual machine (VM) when I run QSFS, quantum safe file system, on the ThreeFold Grid?

QSFS can be run on both a full virtual machine or a micro virtual machine (VM). The QSFS is a "mountable" object, like a disk. It's defined in its own block, then specified as a mount within a VM.

Linux, Github, Containers and More

Where should I start to learn more about Linux?

While the ThreeFold Manual would be a good place to learn about ThreeFold and how to deploy on the TF Grid, to learn specifically about Linux, a good place to start is the Linux website. There you will find many tutorials.

A general advice to learn Linux, and computers in general, is to develop the skill of finding answers by following your natural curiosity: most of the questions have been asked before and answers can be found through search engines.

Before doing any web search, you can use the resources already on hand in the terminal. For any command, you can try adding -h or --help for a brief description of what it does and to see some commonly used arguments. Typing man and then the command name will bring up a more detailed manual, assuming it exists and is installed (e.g. man sudo).

Some ThreeFold users also point out that using different AI and LLM can be very helpful in the process of learning Linux and computers in general.

How can I clone a single branch of a repository on Github?

You can clone a single branch of a repository with the following line:

git clone --single-branch --branch branch_name

Grace Period (Status Paused)

The status of my deployment is paused, in grace period, how can I resume the deployment?

When your wallet is running out of TFT to pay for deployments, your deployments will be paused. To resume your deployments, simply fill up your wallet with more TFT.

Once I refund my TF wallet, how long does it take for the deployment to resume from grace period?

It can take around one hour to change the status from "paused" to "ok" and thus for the deployment to resume.

Can I SSH into my deployments when they are in grace period (i.e. when their status is paused)?

While in grace period, you might not be able to SSH into your deployment. Refund your wallet to resume deployments.

How long is the grace period (i.e. when the deployment status is paused)?

The grace period is 2 weeks. During this period, you can refill your wallet to resume your deployment.


Working with Terraform, I get the following error: failed to create contract: ContractIsNotUnique. Is there a fix to this issue?

This error happens when a contract with the same data is already active. For example, two conflicting contracts are not in the same deployment. You can try to change the data on the file to make sure it's not a self-conflicting terraform deployment.

I am working with Terraform. What do I have to write in the file env.tfvars?

This env.tfvars should look like the following, with the proper content within the quotes:

MNEMONICS = "write your seed phrase"

NETWORK = "write the main network"

SSH_KEY = "write your ssh-key"

Note that this could change based on your specific Terraform deployment.

I am working with Terraform and I am using the example in Terraform Provider Grid. How can I use the example file with environment variables? Why am I getting the message Error: account not found, when deploying with Terraform?

This Q&A is linked with the file in the QSFS section of the ThreeFold Tech repository.

This error happens when you did not properly set your environment variables. In the file, add those lines at the top:

variable "MNEMONICS" {

type = string

description = "The mnemonic phrase used to generate the seed for the node."


variable "NETWORK" {

type = string

default = "main"

description = "The network to connect the node to."


variable "SSH_KEY" {

type = string


Within the file, set those lines:

provider "grid" {

mnemonics = "${var.MNEMONICS}"

network = "${var.NETWORK}"


env_vars = {

SSH_KEY = "${var.SSH_KEY}"


Note: Make sure that you properly set your variables in the file env.tfvars.

Users Troubleshooting and Error Messages

When deploying a virtual machine (VM) on the ThreeFold Grid, I get the following message after trying a full system update and upgrade: GRUB failed to install to the following devices... Is there a fix to this issue?

When deploying a virtual machine and doing a full system update and upgrade (apt update, apt upgrade), if you get the error: GRUB failed to install to the following devices /dev/vda15, try this to fix it:

apt-mark hold grub-efi-amd64-signed

This should fix the issue.

While deploying on the TF Dashboard, I get the following error :"global workload with the same name exists: conflict". What can I do to fix this issue?

This error happens if you deployed a workload on the TF Dashboard with the same deployment name of a previous deployment. In general, you can simply refresh the TF Dashboard browser page and/or change the deployment name for a new one. This should fix the issue.

ThreeFold Connect App

TF Connect App is now asking for a 4-digit password (PIN). I don't remember it as I usually use touch or face ID to unlock the app. What can I do?

When you set up your the app, you are asked a 4-digit password (PIN). After some time, the app will be asking for this PIN when users may have been exclusively using touch/face ID. You can reset it by recovering the account with your seedphrase.

Is there a way to have more than one wallet in TF Connect App?

Yes, this is perfectly possible. You can have multiple wallets in the TF Connect app. You can have multiple wallets for the Stellar network and multiple wallets for Polkadot Substrate.

For example, you can create a wallet on the Stellar Blockchain and import it on TF Connect App with the function Import Wallet. Just copy the seedphrase and it will be imported in TF Connect App.

Note: There will not be an automatic function in the app to create a new wallet. You must do it manually.

What is the difference between 10.x.y.z and 192.168.x.y addresses?

The addresses 10.x.y.z and 192.168.x.y are on the private network.

A 10.x.y.z address is just as valid as a 192.168.x.y address for a private network. If all the devices get a 10.x.y.z network, your private network should work properly. But if some of your devices are getting 10.x.y.z addresses while others are getting 192.168.x.y addresses, then you have two conflicting DHCP servers in your network.


General Information for Developer

Does Zero-OS assign private IPv4 addresses to workloads?

No. Zero-OS will request two IP address from the DHCP. If you only have one physical NIC connected, Zero-OS will assign the second IP address as a virtual device.

Why does each 3Node server have two IP addresses associated with it?

Each node has two IP adresses.

One is for for Zero-OS and one is for for the DMZ (demilitarized zone, sometimes referred to as a perimeter network or screened subnet). This separates public/private traffic from each other.

Note: Zero-OS will request two IP address from the DHCP. If you only have one physical NIC connected, Zero-OS will assign the second IP address as a virtual device.

Can Zero-OS assign public IPv4 or IPv6 addresses to workloads?

Yes it can provide both standard and Yggdrasil connections.

What does MAC mean when it comes to networking?

MAC means media access control. It is a unique hardware ID. It helps the network to recognize your machine. It is then, for example, possible to assign a specific and fixed IP address to your hardware.

I am a developer looking for a way to automatically convert BSC tokens into TFT. Could you please share tips on how to swap regular tokens into TFT, on backend, without and browser extensions, via any platform API?

TFT is implemented as a cross-chain asset (BToken) on BSC.

Swapping via Pancakeswap directly without a browser and extension can be done by calling the Pancakeswap's BSC contract directly. Note that this requires some EVM knowledge on calling contracts.

TFT is a standard ERC-20 contract, called BEP20 on BSC. You will thus need to call the approved method in the TFT contract to allow Pancakeswap to transfer TFTs from your account.

The TFT contract allows you to approve a large amount and when Pancakeswap makes the transfer, the TFT will be deducted from the transaction. This will not reset so you will not have to make a call to approve every swap. This will thus save some gas.

Test Net

Can I get some free TFT to test on Test Net

The TFT on Test Net is real TFT. There are ways to get free TFT to explore Test Net, such as joining the Beta Tester Group. More information here.


TFT Farming Basics

My Titan is v2.1 and the ThreeFold Grid is v3., what is the distinction?

Titan v2.1 is the hardware. Before v2.1, there was 2.0. The hardware currently being shipped is the Titan v2.1.

When you read v3, it refers to the ThreeFold Grid. Titans are now being sent ready for TF Grid v3 so they are being referred to as Titan v3. In short, the current Titans are v2.1 hardware ready for ThreeFold Grid v3.

When will I receive the farming rewards for my 3Nodes?

Farming rewards are usually sent around the 8th of each month. This can vary slightly because the verification process is not yet fully automated.

For more information on the minting process, read the next QnA.

What is the TFT minting process? Is it fully automated?

Minting is based on blockchain data according to strict rules that are carried out by computers with humans involved only to check for errors and to sign the resulting transactions.

There is a human verification mechanism through multisignatures for calculations done on the data as stored in the blockchain. This explains the timing differences when it comes to the monthly farming rewards distribution, since enough people need to sign off.

The detailed minting process for V3 is as follow:

  • TFChain, ThreeFold's blockchain, has all the details about capacity provided by the nodes.
  • TFChain is used to track uptime.
  • Zero-OS reports to TFChain.
  • The code in this repo uses the information from the blockchain to calculate the TFT to be minted.
  • A proof of what needs to be minted and why is created. This proof is then sent to our guardians.
  • The guardians need to double check the execution and the minting report. This is like a human check on the automated process.
  • The guardians need to sign. Only when consensus is achieved the minting as suggested will happen. This allows human to check the code.

It is important to understant that TFChain tracks the capacity and uptime and is the source for the minting.

Note: Additional auditing code will be added in V4 (i.e. special code generated at runtime for verification) using security primitives on motherboards.

For more information on the minting periods, read this QnA.

What should I do if I did not receive my farming rewards this month?

If you did not receive your farming rewards, please contact us via our live chats. We will then investigate the situation.

You can find our live chat option on the TF Connect App (Android, iOS), the TF Forum, TF Dashboard and the TF website. For the TF Connect app, select the Support option. For the other websites, it is a blue icon on the right bottom part of the page.

The easiest way to contact the ThreeFold support is to use this link and click on the chat icon.

What is the TFT entry price of my 3Node farming rewards?

Currently, the TFT entry price of the 3Nodes' farming rewards is 8 cents (0.08 USD).

What is the necessary uptime for a 3Node per period of one month?

Note that as of now, rewards are proportional to the uptime, so (e.g.) 40% uptime farms 40% of the total uptime period.

When implemented : For certified Titans 3Nodes, it is 97% uptime per month (21.6h). For DIY 3Nodes, it is 95% uptime per month (36h). For professional certified 3 nodes, it is 99.5% uptime per month (3.6h).

How can I check the uptime of my 3Nodes? Is there a tool to check the uptime of 3Node servers on the ThreeFold Grid?

You can go on the ThreeFold Dashboard, and select "Farms" in the Portal menu. When you select a specific 3Node in your farm, you can see a visual graph of the 3Node's uptime of the last month. By clicking on "Node Statistics", you can see past and present uptime periods.

I set up a 3Node in the middle of the month, does it affect uptime requirements and rewards?

You will still need to meet the required uptime (95% for DIY, etc.3), but the period starts when you connected the 3Node for the first time, instead of the usual start of the month. This only applies the first month. Afterwards, the uptime is calculated on the whole month. *Read last Q+A

What is the difference between a certified and a non-certified 3Node?

A certified 3Node will receive 25% more reward compared to a non-certified 3Node. You can visit the ThreeFold Marketplace for more information on certified 3Nodes. DIY certified 3Nodes are a future possibility.

What are the different certifications available for 3Node servers and farms? What are the Gold and Silver certifications?

3Nodes can be certified. You can buy certified 3Nodes here.

Farms can also be certified. The certifications are: gold certified farming and silver certified farming.

Note that gold and silver certifications are still being discussed. Join the discussion on the ThreeFold Forum.

What is the difference between V2 and V3 minting?

V2 is being sunset. New miners should directly onboard to V3. On the tokenomics side, V2 rewards decrease as the difficulty level increases. For the V3 rewards, the rewards are constant for 5 years. In short, V3 is more profitable in the long run. For more information, read this post.

What is the TFT minting address on Stellar Chain?

The TFT minting address on Stellar Chain is the following: GBOVQKJYHXRR3DX6NOX2RRYFRCUMSADGDESTDNBDS6CDVLGVESRTAC47

You can see it on the Stellar Explorer here.

Can Titans and DIY 3Nodes share the same farm?

Yes. It's one big ThreeFold family! A farm can have several 3Nodes (Titans or DIY) and each 3Node can be linked to only one farm.

Do I need one farm for each 3Node?

No. You only need one farm. One farm can have multiple 3Nodes. When setting your farm, you will add an address for the farming rewards. All farming rewards from each 3Node of your farm will be sent to this address. Note that you can choose to have more than one farm. It is up to you.

Can a single farm be composed of many 3Nodes?

Yes. You can have many 3Nodes on the same farm.

Can a single 3Node be on more than one farm?

No, this is not possible.

Do I need one reward address per 3Node?

You do not need more than one address linked to one farm. All of your 3Nodes can be connected to the same farm. Rewards per each 3Nodes will all be sent to the address linked to your farm.

How can I access the expert bootstrap mode for Zero-OS?

You can access the expert bootstrap mode for Zero-OS at this link:

When it comes to the Zero-OS bootstrap image, can I simply duplicate the first image I burnt when I build another 3Node?

Yes. What is needed on this bootstrap image is to have the proper farm ID. The bootstrap image will be the same for all your different 3Nodes. It's a good TF farming practice to leave the bootstrap image plugged in the 3Node at all time.

If a node is unused for certain time (e.g. many months offline), will it be erased by the Grid?

No, nodes only get deleted if the farm owner chooses to do so. Old "nodes" are really just entries in TF Chain and TF Chain does not modify or delete this data without external input.

Can a farm be erased from TF Grid?

No, this is not possible. In the future, we will implement some features in order to allow the cleaning of unused farms. As of now, this is not possible. Also, an old farm does not take resources on the TF Grid, or very little.

On the ThreeFold Connect App, it says I need to migrate my Titan farm from V2 to V3. What do I have to do? How long does this take?

To migrate, read this documentation.

How can I migrate my DIY farm from V2 to V3?

Create a new bootstrap image using your new V3 Farm ID. To create a new V3 Farm ID, you can use the ThreeFold Connect App or the ThreeFold Dashboard.

What does the pricing policy ID of a farm represent?

The pricing policy is the definition of how the network bills for workloads (pricing for each resource type, discounts, etc.).

What is the difference between TiB and TB? Why doesn't the TF Explorer shows the same storage space as my disk?

Terabyte (TB) and Tebibyte (TiB) are units of digital information used to measure storage capacity and data transfer rate. While terabyte is a decimal standard unit, Tebibyte is binary.

  • 1 TB = 1000^4 bytes
  • 1 TiB = 1024^4 bytes.

There are thus more bytes in 1 TiB than in 1 TB. 1 TiB is equal to 1.099511627776 TB.

You can play around these 2 notions by exploring this TiB-TB converter.

You can also check this table to compare different OS system's storage representation.

What are the rewards of farming? Can I get more rewards when my 3Node is being utilized?

By connecting a 3Node to the Grid, you get Farming Rewards. If you set a public IP address for the Grid to use, you will receive additional rewards when your 3Node is being utilized by users on the Grid. All rewards are paid in TFT. To know the potential rewards, use the simulator. More information on sales channel will be communicated in the future.

How can I know the potential farming rewards for Grid Utilization?

Go on the ThreeFold simulator, enter your 3Node resources, check the Public IP address. This will enable farming rewards from the parameter NU Required Per CU. Check the difference in the farming rewards per month. Note that you will need a Public IP address.

What is the easiest way to farm ThreeFold tokens (TFT)?

Buy a certified 3Node. This is more or less plug n play! You can also build a DIY 3Node. It's fun and there are many resources to help you along the way.

When do I receive my rewards?

They are distributed once a month, around the 8th*. Distributions are not daily, or after a certain threshold. Note that upcoming minting rules may have a 24 month lockup or until 30% utilization for 3 months on your 3Node.

*This can change slightly depending on the current situation.

Do farming rewards take into account the type of RAM, SSD, HDD and CPU of the 3Node server?

No. The farming rewards do not take into account the specific type of RAM, SSD, HDD and CPU. The farming rewards take into account the quantity of storage and compute units (e.g. TB of SSD/HDD, GB of RAM, # of virtual cores).

Can I send my farming rewards directly to a crypto exchange?

This is not possible. When you send tokens to a crypto exchange, you need to include a memo with your wallet address and the current farming rewards system of ThreeFold is already using that memo space to send the correct farming information.

Do I need collateral to farm ThreeFold tokens?

Many decentralized data projects require collateral, but not ThreeFold. There is an ongoing discussion on collateral. Join the discussion here.

Can I add external drives to the 3Nodes to increase rewards and resources available to the ThreeFold Grid?

As of now, you cannot add external drives to a 3Nodes. It is not yet supported. It might be in the future and we will update the FAQ if/when this happens.

Do I have access to the TFT rewards I receive each month when farming?

For now, V3 farming rewards are distributed as TFT on Stellar and they are immediately available. The lock system will be implemented on chain. Tokens will be staked to your address until unlock conditions are met. Conditions are: 2 years of farming or 30% of proof-of-utilization for 3 months per 3Node.

What is TFTA? Is it still used?

Note that on V3, TFTA will not be issued anymore.

Is there a way to certify a DIY 3Node? How can I become a 3Node certified vendor and builder?

As of now, only certified ThreeFold partners can certify a 3Node. You could become a ThreeFolder vendor and offer certified 3Node. Read more here.

Does it make sense to make my farm a company?

There is no general answer to this. Here's what a ThreeFold member thinks about this if you are living in the USA. Check for your current location if this makes sense for you. DYOR.

"Definitely do this project as a business entity. You can write off equipment, utilities and a portion of your home's square footage if your are hosting the equipment at home." TFarmer

What is the difference between uptime and downtime, and between online and offline, when it comes to 3Nodes?

Uptime and status are two different things. As long as the 3Node is powered on, its uptime does not reset. Its status changes to offline if it hasn't made an uptime report in the last two hours. Even if after more than two hours, the 3Node isn't yet online, the uptime does not reset. Uptime is a function of the system being powered on.

My 3Node server grid utilization is low, is it normal?

This is normal. Currently, not all 3Nodes are being utilized by users on the ThreeFold Grid. Each month, more and more utilization happens and the ThreeFold Grid continually expans. To read on the ThreeFold Grid utilization and expansion, check this TF Forum post.

3Node Farming Requirements

Can I host more than one 3Node server at my house?

Yes, but do not host more than your bandwidth can support.

Is Wifi supported? Can I farm via Wifi instead of an Ethernet cable?

No. Wifi is not supported by Zero-OS due to a number of issues, like reliability, performance, configuration requirements and driver support. It's all about Ethernet cables here.

I have 2 routers with each a different Internet service provider. I disconnected the ethernet cable from one router and connected it to the other router. Do I need to reboot the 3Node?

You do not need to reboot. The 3Node will be able to reconnect to the ThreeFold Grid.

Do I need any specific port configuration when booting a 3Node?

No, as long as the 3Node is connected to the Internet via an ethernet cable (wifi is not supported), Zero-OS will be able to boot. Usually with the DHCP, it automatically assigns an IP address.

How much electricity does a 3Node use?

A small DIY 3Node based on a compact office computer will draw under 20W. A full size server will draw around 100W idling. Note that a 3Node actively used on the Grid (proof-of-utilization) will draw more power, but also generate passive income on top of farming if you have a public IP address.

For more information, read thes section Calculate the Total Electricity Cost of Your Farm of the Farming Guide.

Has anyone run stress tests to know the power consumption at heavy load of certain 3Nodes?

The community is starting to gather some data on this. As of now, we know that a R720 with 2x2690v2 cpu, 4TB NVME SSE P4510 and 320GB ram will draw 390W @100% load. With 2x2650L v2, it's around 300W with fans at full speed. More info will be added as we gather more data.

Can the Titan 3Node be run on PoE? (Power Over Ethernet)

Titans don't come equipped for Power Over Ethernet (PoE). If you have a NUC based Titan there are some PoE lids that might be compatible.

What is the relationship between the 3Node's resources and bandwidth?

A 3Node connects to the ThreeFold Grid and transfers information, whether it is in the form of compute, storage or network units (CU, SU, NU respectively). The more resources your 3Nodes offer to the Grid, the more bandwidth will be needed to transfer the additional information.

What is the bandwidth needed when it comes to running 3Nodes on the Grid?

The strict minimum for one Titan is 1 mbps of bandwidth.

If you want to expand your ThreeFold farm, you should check the following to make sure your bandwidth will be sufficient when there will be Grid utilization.

min Bandwidth per 3Node (mbps) = 10 * max((Total SSD TB / 1 TB),(Total Threads / 8 Threads),(Total GB / 64 GB)) + 10 * (Total HDD TB / 2)

This equation means that for each TB of HDD you need 5 mbps of bandwidth, and for each TB of SSD, 8 Threads and 64GB of RAM (whichever is higher), you need 10 mbps of bandwidth.

This means a proper bandwidth for a Titan would be 10 mbps. As stated, 1 mbps is the strict minimum for one Titan.

The bandwidth needed for a given 3Node is not yet set in stone and you are welcome to participate in ongoing the discussion on this subject on the Forum.

Can I run Zero-OS on a virtual machine?

You can. But you won't farm TFT. To farm TFT, Zero-OS needs to be on bare metal.

Is it possible to build a DIY 3Node with VMWare VM ?

It wouldn't be possible to get farming rewards from such configuration. You need to run a 3Node Zero-OS on bare metal and no virtual machine is permitted. Indeed, to farm TFT you need bare metal. Virtual Machine will not work. Furthermore, all disks of a 3Node need to be wiped completely, thus no other OS can be on the 3Node.

It would be possible to simply set Zero-OS as a VM on VMWare VM, but it wouldn't farm as stated.

Can I run a 3Node on another operating system, like Windows, MAC or Linux?

No. ThreeFold runs its own operating system (OS), which is Zero-OS. You thus need to start with completely wiped disks.

What is the minimum SSD requirement for a 3Node server to farm ThreeFold tokens (TFT)?

You need a theoretical minimum of 500 GB SSD on a desktop or server. Less could work.

Is it possible to have a 3Node server running on only HDD disks?

This is not possible. A 3Node needs at least one SSD disk of 500 GB.

Building a 3Node - Steps and Details

How can I be sure that I properly wiped my disks?

A wiped disk has:

  • no label
  • no partition
  • no filesystem
  • only zeroes

On Linux to see if the disk is only composed of zeroes, use the command line (example with disk sda):

cmp /dev/sda /dev/zero

If there is only zeroes, you should get the output:

cmp: EOF on /dev/sda

You can also use the command line:

sudo pv /dev/sda | od | head

Here are some useful command lines for Linux to make sure there are no partitions, no labels, no filesystems and that the disks are filled with zeroes only:

sudo fdisk -l

sudo fdisk -lf

sudo parted -l

sudo parted /dev/sda 'print’

lsblk --f

lsblk --raw

If I wipe my disk to create a new node ID, will I lose my farming rewards during the month?

No, you wouldn't lose any farming rewards. You will get both the rewards for your previous node ID's uptime and also the new node ID's uptime.

Note that this is the case with the current farming rewards based on total uptime, without any minimum threshold.

My disks have issues with Zero-OS and my 3Nodes. How can I do a factory reset of the disks?

Warning: this is destructive. It erases the disk sda in this example.

Boot a Linux in Try mode and run the following command:

sudo badblocks -svw -b 512 -t 0x00 /dev/sda

*In this example, the disk selected is sda. Choose the proper disk name in your current situation, e.g. sdb, sdc..).

This line will read and (over)write zeroes (0x00) everywhere on the disk.

To understand the line of code, note that 512 is the block size and that without -b BLOCKSIZE, the process would simply go slower. 0x00 represents the zero byte.

This will take some time, but it should reset the disk and hopefully fix any issues.

Note: it takes the 3Node server around 1 percentage per minute for a 2TB SSD disk to accomplish the badblock operation.

Before doing a bootstrap image, I need to format my USB key. How can I format my USB key?

*Note that BalenaEtcher will format and burn your bootstrap image in the same process. See next Q+A for more details.

Windows: This is done easily with diskpart. Here's all the coding needed (with disk X as an example, make sure you choose the correct disk): run Command Prompt as an administrator (right-click option), write diskpart, then in diskpart write list disk, choose your disk and write select disk X, write clean, write create partition primary, write format fs=fat32, then write assign. If for any reason, the process doesn't work, quit diskpart and redo the whole thing. This should fix any bug. Cautious with diskpart, it's destructive.

MAC: This is done easily with Disk Utility. Go in Disk Utility. Select your USB key, click on erase on the top, write a name for your USB key, then choose a format (MS-DOS (FAT) if USB key < 32GB, exFAT if USB key > 32GB), then click erase, then click done.

LINUX: In the Terminal, write df, find your disk (here we use sdX), write sudo umount /dev/sdX, write this line (with the proper FORMAT) sudo mkfs.FORMAT /dev/sdX [FORMAT= vfat for FAT32, ntfs for NTFS, exfat for exFAT], then finally verify the formatting by writing sudo fsck /dev/sdX.

What do you use to burn (or to load) the Zero-OS bootstrap image onto a USB stick?

For MAC, Linux and Windows, you can use BalenaEtcher to load/flash the image on a USB stick. This program also formats the USB in the process. Rufus can also be used for Windows.

Also, got Linux systems, you can transfer the dowloaded image with the dd command: dd if=created_boot_loader_file.img of=/dev/sd? where the input file is the downloaded file from http:/ and the output file (device) is the USB stick device.

Should I do a UEFI image or a BIOS image to bootstrap Zero-OS?

It depends on your 3Node's system. Newer computers and servers will accept UEFI. If it does not work with UEFI, please try with the options ISO (BIOS CD/DVD) or USB (BIOS image) on the ThreeFold bootstrap website. Read the next Q+A for more information on BIOS/UEFI.

How do I set the BIOS or UEFI of my 3Node?

You can read this documentation to learn more about BIOS and UEFI settings for a DIY 3Node.

For my 3Node server, do I need to enable virtualization in BIOS or UEFI?

Yes, you should enable virtualization. On Intel, it is denoted as CPU virtualization and on ASUS, it is denoted as SVM. Make sure virtualization is enabled and look for the precise terms in your specific BIOS/UEFI.

How can I boot a 3Node server with a Zero-OS bootstrap image?

Plug the USB key containing the Zero-OS bootstrap image with your farm ID then power on your 3Node. If the BIOS/UEFI is set correctly and the disks are all wiped, it should boot correctly the first time. If you have any problem booting your 3Node, read the section Troubleshooting and Error Messages of the FAQ.

The first time I booted my 3Node server, it says that the node is not registered yet. What can I do?

The first time you boot a 3Node, it will be written: “This node is not registered (farmer *: NameOfFarm). This is normal. The Grid will create a node ID and you will be able to see it on screen. This can take a couple of minutes.

If after some time (couple hours), the 3Node doesn't get registered, there might be something off with the Grid connection. You can then try to reboot the 3Node, or wait and boot it later. If it persists, you can check the rest of the Troubleshooting section of the Farmer FAQ, or ask around the ThreeFold Telegram Farmer chat or the ThreeFold chat for help.

The first time I boot my 3Node, the node gets registered but it says cache disk : no ssd. What can I do?

This probably means that you either haven't connected a SSD or that you need to wipe your SSD disk(s). Zero-OS runs on bare metal and needs a minimum of one SSD disk (min 500GB & 50 GB per CU). You will see "cache disk : OK" when it works.

The first time I boot my 3 node, the node gets registered and it says cache disk : OK, but the table System Used Capacity is empty. What can I do?

Most of the time, just wait and data will appear. If you want to be sure your 3Node is online on the Grid, you can check the Node Finder, which fetch information every 2 hours. If it persist, first try to simply reboot your 3Node.

I have a relatively old server (e.g. Dell R710 or R620, Z840). I have trouble booting Zero-OS. What could I do?

Sometimes, Zero-OS will not boot in UEFI mode on older servers. In that case, try to boot in BIOS mode. Use either a USB key or the CD/DVD optical drive (the 4th and 5th option on and make sure to select BIOS and not UEFI mode in your server settings.

I connected a SATA SSD to a CD-DVD optical drive adaptor. My system does not recognize the disk. What can I do?

Try to set AHCI mode instead of Legacy mode in SATA settings in the BIOS.

Can someone explain what should I put in the Public IP part of my farm? Should I just insert my Public IP and Gateway (given by my ISP)?

Assuming you are a DIY farmer and operate from your home, this field can be left blank. You do not have to fill in any details.

The add IP option is for farmers that have a block of IP addresses routed to their router (in data centers mostly) and want to present “dedicated IP” addresses for deployments. For more information on how to set the public configuration, go to this link.

Farming Optimization

What is the difference between a ThreeFold 3Node and a ThreeFold farm? What is the difference between the farm ID and the node ID?

A farm is a composition of one or many 3Nodes. A 3Node is a computer connected to the ThreeFold Grid. Each farm has its farm ID and each 3Node has its node ID.

How can I know how many GB of SSD and RAM do I need?

You need 50 GB of SSD per compute units (CU) and a minimum of 500 GB SSD and 2 GB of RAM per 3Node.

A 3Node has, in general, 2 compute units (CU) per thread. Thus, for peak optimisation, you need 100 GB SSD and 8GB RAM per thread.

What is the optimal ratio of virtual cores (vcores or threads), SSD storage and RAM memory? What is the best optimization scenario for a 3Node, in terms of ThreeFold tokens (TFT) farming rewards?

In short, for peak optimization, aim for 100 GB SSD of storage and 8GB RAM of memory per virtual core (vcore or thread).

For example, a 32 threads (32 vcores) 3Nodes would need 3.2 TB SSD and 256GB RAM to be optimal, reward-wise. That is: 32 * 100 = 3200 GB SSD = 3.2TB SSD, and 32 * 8 = 256 GB RAM total.

Adding more GB of RAM would not increase your TFT rewards. You would need more vcores if you want to expand.

NB: This is purely based on reward considerations. Some users might need different ratios for different specific uses of the Grid.

What does TBW mean? What is a good TBW level for a SSD disk?

TBW means Terabytes Written. TBW directly measures how much you can write cumulatively into the drive over its lifetime. For your 3Node, it can be a good idea to prioritize a minimum ratio of 500 TBW per 1TB for SSD.

*Note that TBW is not a technical specification, but a general claim from the manufacturer. For this reason, it can also be good to check the warranty of the disk. For example, if a manufacturer offers a 5-year warranty to its product, it indicates that the company thinks its product will last a long time.

Are SATA and SAS drives interchangeable?

This goes only one way. You can put a SATA drive in a SAS slot, but you can’t put a SAS drive in a SATA slot. See the next question for more information.

What is the speed difference between SAS and SATA disks?

One of the big differences between SATA and SAS is the transfer speed. Using SATA disks with SAS cables, you will be limited by the SATA transfer speed.

  • Sata I : 150 MB/s
  • Sata II : 300 MB/s
  • Sata III : 600 MB/s
  • SAS : 600-1500 MB/s

Note: You will most probably need to re-flash the raid card if you use the front panel disks (onboard storage) of your server.

Is it possible to do a graceful shutdown to a 3Node server? How can you shutdown or power off a 3Node server?

There are no "graceful" shutdowns of 3Nodes. You can shutdown a 3Node from the software side. You need to shut it down manually directly on the hardware. 3Nodes are self-healing and if they suddenly power down, no data or information will be lost.

Is it possible to have direct access to Zero-OS's core to force a reboot?

No, this is not possible. The general philosophy with Zero-OS is: no shell, no GUI, and no remote control. In other words, anything that could potentially provide attack surface is off the table. This ensures a high security level to Zero-OS and the ThreeFold Grid in general. To reboot a 3Node, you have to do it manually.

Do I need some port forwarding in my router for each 3Node server?

No, this is not needed.

Are there ways to reduce 3Node servers' noises?

To reduce the noise, you can remove all the unnecessary cards in the servers as well as the HDD disks if you don't use them. Unplugging the SAS cables can also help. You can also set the fans to adjust their speed instead of being constant.

At the end of the day, servers were manufactured for durability and efficiency, and not for being quiet. Most servers are placed in server rooms where noise doesn't matter much.

I built a 3Node out of old hardware. Is it possible that my BIOS or UEFI has improper time and date set as factory default?

Yes. Make sure you have the correct time and date in BIOS to avoid errors when trying to boot Zero-OS. It might not cause any problems, but sometimes it does.

I have rack servers in my ThreeFold farm. Can I set rack servers vertically?

In general, it is not recommended to set rack servers vertically as they were designed to be laid flat in racks. That being said, if you want to set your rack vertically, here are some general rules to follow. Do so at your own risk.

First, make sure the parts in the servers are well installed and that they will not fall if laid vertically. Second, and foremost, you want to make sure that there will not be any overheating. This means to make sure you don't block the front and rear of the unit, so heat can dissipate thought the vents.

If you want to put the rack vertically with the longest side of the rack laying upward, having the power supply units (PSUs) on the very top will ensure that heat dissipate well.

Farming and Maintenance

How can I check if there is utilization on my 3Nodes?

To see if there is utilization on your 3Node, you can consult the TF Dashboard, go to the Farm section and consult the information under your 3Nodes. Note that the quickest way is to check if there are CPUs reserved.

Do I need the Zero-OS bootstrap image drive (USB or CD-DVD) when I reboot, or can I boot Zero-OS from the 3Node main hard drive?

It is advised to keep the bootstrap image plugged in your 3Node. Once your node has been booted with Zero-OS via the USB key, you can remove the USB key, but if something happens and the node needs to reconnect with the network, it won’t be able to do so. We advise people to let the USB key always in so the node can reconnect with the network if needed.

You need the bootstrap image device plugged in every time you reboot a 3Node and it's a good practice to keep it plugged in all the time. The technical explanation is: (1) at first boot, it creates a minimum requirement on SSD which is used as cache (2) each time the system restarts it reuses this SSD piece but Zero-OS bootstrap is also needed to download the last image. Indeed, image is not stored on the machine and also no boot loader is installed.

It's written that my node is using 100% of HRU. What does it mean?

HRU stands for your HDD space available. It means that you are using 100% of the HDD space available, or equivalently that you have no HDD on your system.

On the ThreeFold Node Finder, I only see half of the virtual cores or threads my 3Node has, what can I do?

Check in the BIOS settings and make sure you have enabled Virtual Cores (or Hyper Threading/Logical Cores).

Why are the 3Nodes' resources different on the ThreeFold Node Finder and the ThreeFold Dashboard?

There is a difference because one shows the resources in GiB and the other in GB. It's just a way to display information, the resources are ultimately the same, but shown differently. 1 GiB = 1.073741824 GB.

How can I test the health of my disks?

There are many ways to test the health of your disks. For some information on this, you can have a look at this TF forum post.

How can I transfer my 3Node from one farm to another?

To transfer your 3Node from one farm to another, simply make a new bootstrap image of the new farm, connect the new bootstrap image to the 3Node and restart the node.

Note that you can use balenaEtcher to format and burn the bootstrap image at the same time.

What do CRU, MRU, HRU and SRU mean on the ThreeFold Node Finder?

CRU means the number of virtual cores. MRU means the GB of ram (memory). HRU means the HDD capacity storage and SRU means the SSD capacity storage.

I have more than one ThreeFold 3Node farm, but I want all my 3Nodes on only one farm. How can I put all my 3Nodes on one farm? How can I change the farm ID of my 3Node?

If you have more than one 3Node associated with more than one farm, it is possible to put all the 3Nodes under only one farm. The following shows how to change the farm ID of your 3Node.

For each 3Node, you need to create a new USB key Zero-OS boostrap image associated with the chosen farm ID. This will ensure your 3Node links to the chosen farm. To create a new USB key Zero-OS bootstrap image, you can download the bootstrap image here or you can clone an existing USB key bootstrap image associated with the chosen farm ID. In both case, you can use a software like BalenaEtcher. Once you have the new USB key bootstrap image, plug it into the 3Node and reboot the server. After reboot, the 3Node will have the same node ID as before, but it will now be associated with the chosen farm ID.

Note: If you want a new node ID for your 3Node, you will need to wipe the main SSD of your 3Node.

How can I know if my 3Node is online on the Grid?

There are multiple answers to this.

(1) You can plug a monitor to your 3Node and check directly its status.

(2) You can check your 3Node status by using the Node Finder of the ThreeFold Dashboard.

(3) You can also use the unofficial, but highly useful ThreeFold Node Status Bot on Telegram.

I booted my 3Node and the monitor says it's online and connected to the Grid. But the ThreeFold Node Finder says it is offline? What can I do?

The Node Finder refetches information every 2 hours. You can wait 2 hours and see if the problem persists. Then/or, you could reboot the 3Node and see if the Node Finder sees it as online.

My 3Node does show on the ThreeFold Node Finder, but not on the ThreeFold Dashboard, what can I do?

If you're 3Node is correctly registered on the ThreeFold Grid but you cannot see it on the ThreeFold Dashboard, there can be many different ways to solve this issue.

One way to fix this is to go in the TF Dashboard, select change the address and then simply re-paste the same address, then the extension will ask you to resign. Usually this fixes the issue.

If the first method did not work, you can try to remove the account and add it back up on the Polkadot.js extension. Before doing so, make sure you have a back up of your seed phrase as you will need it to re-enter the account. Your 3Node should then appear.

If I upgrade my 3Node, will it increase my rewards?

Yes. Use the simulator to verify the additional rewards. But note that, currently, upgrades are not recognized until the next minting cycle.

I booted my 3Node for the first time at the beginning of the month, then I did some upgrade or downgrade, will the ThreeFold Grid recognize the new hardware? Will it still be the same 3Node ID?

Downgrades are counted in the current minting cycle. So you mint for the entire cycle at the downgraded specs.

Minting only considers a single configuration per node per cycle, and that is the minimum configuration seen at any point during the cycle. With this logic in mind, upgrades will only be recognized at the next minting cycle. Note that your 3Node will have a new ID and new price entry if you changed the SSD containing the 3Node ID.

Is it possible to ask the 3Node to refetch the node information on the monitor?

To refetch information, press " q " on the keyboard.

When does Zero-OS detect the capacity of a 3Node?

Zero-OS only detects capacity right after it boots.

Where is the 3Node ID stored?

For the current Zero-OS version, the node ID is stored in the first SSD you install on your 3Node*. If you change or erase this disk, this disk will lose its current 3Node ID.

*Note that if, at the first boot, you put a SSD SATA and a SSD NVME at the same time, the node ID will be registered on the SSD SATA.

Is there a way to backup my node ID in order to restore a 3Node if the disk with the node ID gets corrupted or breaks down?

Yes, you can do a backup, but as of now this process must be done manually.

One way is to boot a Linux USB image in Try mode, open up the File folder of your disk that contains the node ID. Click on + Other Locations. Then, open the folder that contains the folder zos-cache and open the folder identityd. In this folder, select the file seed.txt and make a copy of it in a safe place (USB key, notebook, e-mail, etc.). If the disk which contains your node ID is damaged, simply reboot the 3Node with a new disk and the Zero-OS bootstrap image. Your 3Node will connect to the Grid and assign a new node ID. Once this is done, reboot the 3Node, but this time with the Linux USB image, go in the same folder as stated before and replace the new seed.txt file with the old file. Reboot your 3Node with the Zero-OS bootstrap and you're done.

If I upgrade my 3Node, does it change the node ID?

Upgrades won't change the node ID, unless you replace the SSD where the node ID is stored (see above for more info on this).

Does it make sense to recreate my node when the price drops?

Short answer: no. Long answer: click here.

My 3Node lost power momentarily and I had to power it back on manually. Is there a better way to proceed?

In your BIOS, go in Security Settings and choose Last for AC Power Recovery. If you want, set a delay between 60 and 240 seconds. This will ensure your 3Node does not power on and off frantically if your power flickers on and off, thus potentially damaging the unit. On other BIOS, it's After Power Loss, and you should choose Previous State.

*Depending on your 3Node, the parameter might have a different name.

Do I need to change the battery BIOS?

It can be a good thing to change it when you buy an old desktop or server to make sure it lasts long. When the battery goes out of power, the 3Node won't have access to the BIOS settings if it loses power momentarily.

Do I need to enable UEFI Network Stack?

You don't need to if you use a removable media (e.g. USB key) as a booting image. It is needed only if you boot from a PXE server on your network. You should keep this feature disabled. Enable it only if you know 100% what you are doing. Otherwise it might bring vulnerabilities in terms of network security.

I want redundancy of power for my 3 nodes. I have two PSU on my Dell server. What can I do?

Make sure you enable the Hot Spare feature. This feature is accessible in iDRAC Settings - Power Configuration. Other servers might have this function, with a different name and configuration. Check the server's manual for more details.

Why isn't there support for RAID? Does Zero-OS work with RAID?

RAID is a technology that has brought resilience and security to the IT industry. But it has some limitations that we at ThreeFold did not want to get stuck in. We developed a different (and more efficient way to store data reliably. Please have a look here.

This Quantum Safe Storage overcomes some of the shortfalls of RAID and is able to work over multiple nodes geographically spread on the TF Grid.

Is there a way to bypass RAID in order for Zero-OS to have bare metals on the system? (No RAID controller in between storage and the Grid.)

Yes it is possible. "You can use the on board storage on a server without RAID. You can re-flash the RAID card, turn on HBA/non-RAID mode, or install a different card. No need for RAID." @FLnelson It's usually easy to set servers such as a HP Proliant with the HBA mode. For Dell servers, you can either cross-flash the RAID controller with an “IT-mode-Firmware” (see this video) or get a DELL H310-controller (which has the non-RAID option). Otherwise, you can install a NVME SSD with a PCIe adaptor, and turn off the RAID controller.

I have a 3Node rack server. Is it possible to use a M.2 to SATA adapter in order to put the M.2 SATA disk in the HDD bay (onboard storage)?

Yes, it is possible. You will most probably need to bypass the RAID controller for Zero-OS to access properly the onboard storage. See previous question.

My 3Node uses only PCIe adapters and SSD NVME disks. Do I need the RAID controller on?

The onboard RAID controller is not linked to your PCIe SSDs. In this case, you can switch the RAID controller off.

Can I change the name of my farm on polkadot.js?

It’s possible to rename farms through the Polkadot UI. For mainnet, use this link.

  1. Under using the selected account, select the account that owns the farm
  2. Choose tfgridModule from the dropdown menu submit the following extrinsic,
  3. Select updateFarm(id, name, pricingPolicyId)
  4. Under name: Bytes, write the new farm name
  5. Finally, click on the bottom Submit Transaction at the bottom right of the screen

How can I delete a farm on polkadot.js?

The ability to delete a farm was removed from TF Chain due to concerns that nodes could be left without a farm and thus cause problems with billing.

I try to delete a node on the TF Dashboard, but it doesn’t work. Is there any other way to proceed that could work?

It’s possible to delete nodes through the Polkadot UI. For mainnet, use this link.

  1. Under using the selected account, select the account that owns the farm,
  2. Choose tfgridModule from the dropdown menu submit the following extrinsic
  3. Select deleteNodeFarm(nodeId)
  4. Under id: u32, write the ID of the 3Node you want to delete
  5. Finally, click on the bottom Submit Transaction at the bottom right of the screen

My 3Node has 2 ethernet ports in the back, with one written AMT above, what does it mean? Can I use this port to connect my 3Node to the ThreeFold Grid?

First, let's define the term AMT. It means: Active Management Technology. Without going into too much details, it is to remotely access servers via the network at the BIOS level. Thus, you should plug the ethernet cable in the port next to AMT, and not into the AMT port. You can explore AMT properties if you want remote access to your server.

My 3Node is based on a the hardware Z600, Z620 or Z820, can I run it headless or without a GPU?

For the Z600, there is a great video on youtube.

For the Z620 and the Z820, you need to do some variation on the video above. In the BIOS, go in File, then Replicated Setup, and select Save to Removable Storage Device. This will save a text file on your USB key. Then, in the text file, go to Headless Mode and remove the * in front of Disable and put it in front of Enable. Save the file and then go back into BIOS. Now go in File, then Replicated Setup, and select Restore from Removable Storage Device.

Running your 3Node without the GPU can save some power consumption as well as giving you one more extra slot for other hardware.

Is it possible to add high-level GPU on rack servers to farm more TFT?

Some farmers had success installing GPUs such as the RTX3080 in servers as small as 2U (such as R730). Connections such as 250W 8-pin plug are needed on each riser. Generally, tower servers have more space to add high-level GPU.

Note: GPU farming will be implemented in the future.

If I change farm, will my node IDs change on my 3Node servers?

You can move 3Nodes between farms without losing the node IDs. You simply need to change the boot media with the new farm ID and then reboot the 3Node. The 3Node will have the same node ID but it will now be associated with the new farm ID.

Troubleshooting and Error Messages

Is it possible to access the Error Screen or Log Screen?

Yes! On the Zero-OS console, hit alt-F2 to open up the Error/Log Screen, and hit alt-F3 to go back to the main screen.

What does it mean when I see, during the 3Node boot, the message: error = context deadline exceeded?

In general, this message means that the ThreeFold Grid asked something to your 3Node, and your 3Node could not respond fast enough. It is usually necessary to read the following error message to understand the situation more specifically.

I try to boot a 3Node, but I get the error: "No Route to Host on Linux". What does it mean?

There are many potential answers to this. Perhaps the Host is offline, the service isn't running. This is usually the reason with TF Grid. It means the Grid is not responsive. In this case, try to boot the 3Node later. If it persists ask TF Support.

There can also be other reasons. You might have connected to the wrong port. Perhaps you have configured iptables to block connections on that port. Your DNS might be improperly configured. You might have an Incorrect Network or Host Configuration. Many troubleshoots are possible. Here's a good place to start.

How can I fix the error: "Network configuration succeed but Zero-OS kernel could not be downloaded" when booting a 3Node?

To fix the error "Network configuration succeed but Zero-OS kernel could not be downloaded", you can try to restart the router and reboot the 3Node. This usually fixes the issue. If this doesn't work, check if the router is still functional. The cause of this issue might be that your router is broken.

Using SAS disks, I get the error; "No ssd found, failed to register". What can I do to fix this?

First make sure to wipe the disks and then boot your 3Node. If you've wiped the disks and it doesn't work, it's been reported that using the command "diskpart clean command" on Windows can fix this issue.

When booting a 3Node, how to fix the error: "no disks: registration failed"?

There can be many different fixes for this error. Here are some troubleshooting tips to test separately:

  • In BIOS, enable AHCI
  • Make sure to wipe the disks of the 3Nodes
  • If the 3Node has a RAID Controller:
    • Disabled the RAID controller, OR;
    • Flash the RAID controller (i.e. crossflashing), OR;
    • Change the controller to a Dell H310 controller (for Dell servers)
  • Try the command badblocks (replace sda with your specific disk). Note that this command will delete all the data on the disk
    • sudo badblocks -svw -b 512 -t 0x00 /dev/sda

My SSD is sometimes detected as HDD by Zero-OS when there is a reboot. Is there a fix or a way to test the SSD disk?

If your SSD disk shows as HDD, usually you can reboot the 3Node and Z-OS adjusts correctly.

Anyone experiencing frequently this issue where Z-OS sometimes detects an SSD as HDD can try the following:

  • Boot up a live Ubuntu Desktop image
  • Run the benchmark utility within the Disks app
  • Check if the seektime of the disk is sufficient for Z-OS
    • If the seektime is above 0.5ms, Z-OS will consider your SSD as HDD

Detailed Steps:

  • Boot a Ubuntu Linux live USB
  • Install gnome-disks if it isn't already installed:
    • sudo apt install gnome-disks
  • Open the application launcher and search for Disks
  • Select your disk
  • Click on the tree dots menu
  • Select Benchmark Disk...
    • Use the default parameters
      • Transfer rate: This is not relevant for our current test
        • You can set to it to minimum (e.g. 2)
    • Sample size: 10 MB is sufficient
  • Check the average access time on the ThreeFold repository
    • Check seek time for HDD and SSD
      • A SSD needs to be <=0.5ms
  • If the result is above 0.5ms, this is why Z-OS doesn't recognize the disk properly
    • You can then run diagnostics (e.g. smartmontools)
      • If this is not fixable, you should change disk (e.g. take a more performing disk)

Note: The green dots on the output represent seektime and that's what Z-OS is looking at. Specifically, it checks that the average seektime is below 0.5ms. If the seektime is above this, Z-OS will consider your SSD as HDD.

When booting a 3Node, I get the message: failed to register node: failed to create node: failed to submit extrinsic: Invalid Transaction: registration failed. What could fix this?

The most probable fix to this error is simply to properly wipe your disk(s):

I try to boot a 3Node, but I get the message no route with default gateway found. What does it mean?

First, let's see the main terms. Default gateway act as an access point to other networks, in this case the TF Grid, when there is a back and forth exchange of data packets.

While the last question implied a communication problem from the Grid, this error message usually means that the 3Node has communication problem. In short, it has difficulty reaching the TF Grid. There are many ways to troubleshoot this error. First, let's give the most direct solution. Make sure you have a direct connection with your Internet Service Provider (ISP): your 3Node should be connected to a router or a switch via an ethernet cable. Wifi doesn't work. Make sure your DHCP is set correctly.

If the problem persists, check the default gateway of your 3Node and then make sure your router can reach it.

*See next Q+A for more a possible solution.

I have trouble connecting the 3Node to the Grid with a 10GB NIC card. What can I do?

As of now, Zero-OS sometimes has trouble with 10GB NIC card. The easiest solution to this is to connect your 3Node with the 1GB NIC card. This should solve the issue. More fine tuning might be needed to get your 3Node to work with a 10GB NIC card. Future Zero-OS version might solve this issue.

I switch the ethernet cable to a different port when my 3Node was running. Internet connection is lost. What can I do?

When your 3Node boots, Zero-OS marks the NIC port. This means you cannot change NIC port when your 3Node is running. You can either put back the ethernet cable in the initial NIC port, or reboot the 3Node. At boot, Zero-OS will marks the new NIC port as the main entry.

I get the error Certificate is not yet valid when booting my 3Node server, what can I do?

Make sure your firmware is up to date. If necessary, reinstall it. You might have to install then re-install the firmware if your system is very old.

When running wipefs to wipe my disks on Linux, I get either of the following errors: "syntax error near unexpected token" or "Probing Initialized Failed". Is there a fix?

Many different reasons can cause this issue. When you get that error, sometimes it is because your are trying to wipe your boot USB by accident. If this is not the case, and you really are trying to wipe the correct disk, here are some fixes to try out, with the disk sda as an example:

  • Fix 1:
    • Force the wiping of the disk:
      • sudo wipefs -af /dev/sda
  • Fix 2:
    • Unmount the disk then wipe it:
      • sudo umount /dev/sda
      • sudo wipefs -a /dev/sda

I did a format on my SSD disk, but Zero-OS still does not recognize them. What's wrong?

Formatting is one thing, but to boot properly, Zero-OS needs to work on a completely wipe disk. Thus, make sure you wipe your disks. Formatting is not enough.

I have a Dell Rx10 server (R610, 710, 910). When I boot Zero-OS I get the message Probing EDD and the 3Node doesn't boot from there. What can I do?

For the R610 and 710, you can simply re-flash the card. See this link for more information. For the 910, you can’t re-flash the card. In this case, get a LSI Dell card and it should work. (They are cheap when you buy them used online.)

My 3Node doesn't boot properly without a monitor plugged in. What can I do?

First, try to disable the "Halt On" mode in BIOS. If you do not have this option, try simply enabling the Legacy Support (Dell BIOS for example). If this doesn't work, try to plug in a Dummy Plug/Headless Ghost/Display Emulator in your 3Node. This will simulate a plugged monitor. This should fix the problem.

My 3Node is running on the Grid, but when I plugged in the monitor, it states: Disabling IR #16. Is there a problem?

In general, you can simply ignore this error statement. This error is linked to the Nvidia binary driver. It simply means that your 3Node lost connection with the graphic card (by unplugging and replugging the monitor for example).

My 3Node won't boot without disabling the Secure Boot option, is it safe?

In the case where you want to boot Zero-OS, disabling Secure Boot option is safe. With Secure Boot disabled, it can be easier or even necessary when it comes to booting Zero-OS. Secure Boot is used when you want to lock the BIOS/UEFI settings.

When I tried to boot my 3Node, at some point the screen went black, with or without a blinking hyphen or dash. What could cause this and what could I do to resolve the issue?

There is a possibility that this happens because you are booting your 3Node on a HDD. A 3Node needs a minimum of 500GB of SSD to work properly.

Also, make sure that you are using the correct boot option (Legacy BIOS or UEFI) in the Settings and that it corresponds to the correct booting image on the ThreeFold Bootstrap page.

This problem often arises when you plugged your disks in the wrong controller. For example, try unpluging the disks from the SAS controller, and plug them in the SATA controller. Also, disable the SAS controller if needed.

In a Legacy BIOS boot, make sure Legacy is enabled and disable Data Execution Prevention if possible.

Also, it might have to do with your RAID controller configuration. Make sure this is properly set. For example, configuring all the HDD disks into one logical disk can fix this problem, or re-flashing the RAID card can also help.

My 3Nodes go offline after a modem reboot. Is there a way to prevent this?

Yes, there are many ways to prevent this. An easy solution is to set the DHCP server to reserve local IPs for the 3Nodes MAC addresses.

This problem is also preventable if your router stays online during the modem reboot.

Indeed, rebooting the 3Nodes is necessary when there are local IP changes, as 3Nodes are addressed a local IP addresses when they are booted.

The DHCP will addresses any local IP address that is available when you are booting a 3Node. Reserving local IP addresses is a good TF farming practice.

When I boot my 3Node, it reaches the Welcome to Zero-OS window, but it doesn't boot properly and there's an error message: failed to load object : type substrate..., what can I do?

Usually simply rebooting the 3Node fixes this problem.

When I try to access iDRAC on a web browswer, even with protected mode off, I get the error The webpage cannot be found, what can I do?

Open iDRAC in the Internet Explorer emulator extension (IE Tab) in Chrome, then update iDRAC. It should work elsewhere then. Sometimes, it will be needed to add "ST1=code" at the end of the IE Tab url.

When booting the 3Node, I get the error Network interface detected but autoconfiguration failed. What can I do?

First make sure your network cable is plugged in and that your DHCP is working and responding. If you change the NIC port of the ethernet cable, make sure to reboot the 3Node so Zero-OS can change the NIC port attribution.

Some farmers reported that this got fixed by simply powering off the 3Node(s), the router and modem for 2 minutes then powering it all back on. Resetting the modem and router (switch on the hardware) in the process can also help.

If this doesn't work, try to upgrade the firmware of the NIC and the motherboard. If this still doesn't work, the NIC card might be broken. Try with another NIC card.

When I boot my Dell server, I get the message: All of the disks from your previous configuration are gone... Press any key to continue or 'C' to load the configuration utility. What can I do?

Many changes to your server can lead to this message.

Usually, the easiest solution is to reset the disk configuration in iDRAC's configuration utility.

What can causes this message:

  1. During a new installation, the cables connecting to your external storage are not wired to the correct ports.
  2. Your RAID adapter has failed.
  3. Your SAS cables are not plugged properly or are malfunctioning.

Note: Resetting the configuration will destroy all data on all virtual disks. Make sure you know what you are doing! In doubt, ask the TF community.

I have a Dell R620. In Zero-OS, I get the failure message No network card found and then the 3Node reebots after few seconds. The same happens for every LAN input. What can I do?

The first thing to try here is to boot the server in BIOS mode instead of UEFI mode. If this doesn't fix the problem, try the following.

Sometimes, this happens when the firmwares of BIOS, iDRAC, Lifecycle Controller and NIC are incompatible to each other. The solution is then to update them all correctly. Some problems can arise in the process.

First, you should try to do the updates using iDRAC as you can update both iDRAC and BIOS there. If this does not work, try to update separate, with a live-linux distro, the BIOS, iDRAC and Lifecycle Controller. Once this is done, the server should be able to do a liveupdate, https to dell support website, via lifecycle-controller. This would update the other components. For more details on this method, watch this video.

Note: Some farmers have reported that the Broadcom NIC card does not work well for Zero-OS and that a standard Intel PCI NIC card replacement resolved the issue. This could be a more straightforward method if updating the firmwares doesn't resolve the issue.

I am using freeDos to crossflash my raid controller on a Dell server, but I can't see the RAID controller with the Command Info. What can I do?

Turn on the raid controller in the BIOS, otherwise freeDos does not show you the raid controller with the command Info.

Can I use a VGA to HDMI adaptor to connect a TV screen or monitor to the 3Node? I tried to boot a 3Node with a VGA to HDMI adaptor but the boot fails, what can I do?

This might work, but it has been reported by farmers that Zero-OS might have difficulties booting when this is done with a VGA/HDMI adaptor on a TV screen. This is most likely due to the TV screen not supporting the output once the system loaded into Zero-OS. The easy fix to this issue is to use a standard computer monitor with a VGA plug.

When I try to boot my 3Node, the fans start spinning fast with a loud noise and the screen is black. What can I do to resolve this?

There may be several causes to this issue. You can try to remove all the RAM sticks, to clean the dust and then to reseat the RAM sticks. If it still doesn't resolve the issue, you can check the RAM sticks one by one to see if one is malfunctioning. This often resolves the issue. Also, some cables might not be properly connected.

When booting Zero-OS with IPV6 configurations, I get the errors (1) dial tcp: address IPV6-address too many columns in address and (2) no pools matches key: not routable. What can I do to fix this issue?

This usually means that the IPV6 attributed is not valid. It is also often caused when the DNS configuration does not resolve IPV6 correctly.

To fix this issue, it is often necessary to adjust the IPV6 settings related to the router and the modem. Confirming with your Internet service provider (ISP) that the IPV6 settings are properly configured could also be necessary to fix the issue.

When booting a 3Node, Zero-OS downloads fine, but then I get the message: error no route with default gateway found, and the message: info check if interface has a cable plugged in. What could fix this?

Make sure you have network stack enabled in BIOS. If so, check you ethernet port and make sure that it's clean. Also make sure the ethernet rj45 connectors are clean on both ends. If that does not work, verify the state of your SATA cables. If all this doesn't work, download and re-install Zero-OS.

How can I update Dell and HP servers to Intel E5-2600v2, E5-2400v2 and E5-4600v2, when applicable?

There are many ressources online with steps on how to do this. You can check this youtube video on Dell and HP servers, as welll as this documentation for HP Proliant Gen8.

How can I update the firmware and driver of a Dell PowerEdge server?

Dell has excellen documentation for this. Read this for the detailed steps.

When I boot a 3Node in UEFI mode, it gets stuck at: Initializing Network Device, is there a way to fix this?

In short, booting the 3Node in BIOS mode instead of UEFI mode usually fixes this issue.

You can make bootable USB with the USB option of the Zero-OS bootstrap image page. Make sure to boot your server using BIOS and not UEFI. In the boot sequence, make the USB as your first choice to boot.

When I boot my 3Node, it gets stuck during the Zero-OS download. It never reaches 100%. What can I do to fix this issue?

Here are some ways to troubleshoot your 3Node when it cannot download Zero-OS completely (to 100%):

  • Sometimes, just rebooting the 3Node and/or trying a little bit later can work.
  • It can help to reboot the modem and the router.
  • Make sure your BIOS/UEFI is up to date. Updating the BIOS/UEFI can help.
  • It can also help to set the correct date and time.

When booting a 3Node, I get the error=“context deadline exceeded” module=network error=failed to initialize rmb api failed to initialized admin mw: failed to get farm: farm not found: object not found. What can I do to fix this issue?

Usually, the simple fix to this issue is to make sure that your bootstrap image is on the same network as your farm. For example, if you created your farm on the Main net, you should use a Main net Zero-OS bootstrap image.

ThreeFold Grid and Data

How is the farming minting reward calculated? Is the Grid always monitoring my 3Node?

The Grid uses an algorithm that does not continually monitor the 3Node. It does its best to determine uptime through occasional checking in, which we call ping. The 3Node sends a ping to the Grid and the Grid sends a ping to the 3Node to confirm the reception. (Ping-Pong!)

It’s helpful to understand that the Grid is really just 3Nodes and TF Chain (which itself is a collection of nodes). Nodes report their uptime by writing an entry on TF Chain, about once every two hours. These reports are used for minting.

How does communication happen on the ThreeFold Grid at the 3Node's level?

There are two ways to get information about nodes. Once is to query TF Chain, and the other is to communicate with nodes directly.

The link is the following:

How does the ThreeFold Node Status bot work? How can I use the ThreeFold Node Status bot to verify if my 3Node is online?

  1. Click on this link:

  2. To subscribe a node, write the command /subscribe nodeID. With the ID 100 as example, write: /subscribe 100

  3. To verify the status of all your 3Nodes, write: /status

  4. To verify the status of all your 3Nodes through Yggdrasil, write: /ping

Note: The bot should send you alerts when it considers any registered node to be offline.

How does the Telegram Status Bot get information from my 3Node? My 3Node is online on the ThreeFold Node Finder, but offline on the Telegram Status Bot, is this normal?

The status bot communicates directly by sending pings to the nodes over Yggdrasil every five minutes. Therefore, it will report on temporary network interruptions that might not affect your total uptime calculation as used for minting.

I noticed that when I reboot my 3Node, the uptime counter on the ThreeFold Node Finder goes back to zero. Does it mean I lose uptime and the uptime start over again when I reboot the 3Node?

No. The only uptime you lose is the time your 3Node was offline from the ThreeFold Grid. This ThreeFold Grid still has the data of your total uptime of the month. The Node Finder only shows this statistics as: "This node has been up non-stop without being rebooted for now [insert time]". If you maintain a total uptime above the minimum uptime, you're fine.

*For now the farming rewards are proportional to the total uptime.

One of my nodes is showing the wrong location. Any problem with that?

The ThreeFold Node Finder is showing your ISP location. This is perfectly normal.


Can I use different type of RAM for the same 3Node?

No. Always use the same type of RAM per 3Node. If you use RDIMM, go all RDIMM, etc. Check your hardware specifications to make sure you have the right type of memory.

How can I know if the memory I am buying is correct for my specific hardware?

To be sure, look into the owner's manual of your specific computer.

In general, you can go to and look for your specific computer model. As general steps, select your computer's system in By system, then select the series and then select the specific model of the series. You will then see available memories to buy from You can also simply read the documentation at the bottom. The memory type supported by your computer will be explained. Then you can buy the memory needed from any other computer store.

For servers, you can check with Cloudninja's documentation here. Search for your specific hardware and look for the compatible memory. This reference is good for rack and tower servers.

What do the terms RDIMM, LDIMM, UDIMM, LRDIMM, FBDIMM mean when it comes to RAM memory sticks?

Well first, the DIMM means dual inline memory module.

  • U stands for or unregistered (or unbuffered).

  • R stands for registered memory.

  • LR stands for load-reduced.

  • FB stands for fully-buffered.

What is the difference between ECC and non-ECC memory?

ECC means error correction code memory. This type of memory can detect and correct data corruption. Non-ECC mostly cannot detect nor correct, but some can detect, but never correct data corruption. Check your hardware specifications to make sure you have the right type of memory (ECC or non-ECC).

How can I change the RAM memory sticks on my 3Nodes? How can I achieve dual channel configuration with sticks of RAM?

First, always use RAM sticks of the same size and type. It should be noted on your motherboard which slots to populate first. As a general guide, there is usually 2 slots A and B, with each 2 memory stick entries. You must then install the ram sticks on A1 and B1 in order to achieve dual channel, then A2 and B2 if you have more (visual order: A1 A2 B1 B2).

Example: You want to start with your largest sticks, evenly distributed between both processors and work your way down to your smallest. Let's take an example with 2 processors as well as 4x 16GB sticks and 4x 8GB sticks. The arrangement would be A1-16GB, B1-16GB, A2-16GB, B2-16GB, A3-8GB, B3-8GB, A4-8GB, B4-8GB. Avoid odd numbers as well. You optimally want pairs. So if you only have 5x 8GB sticks, only install 4 until you have an even 6.

What does RAM mean?

RAM means random access memory. Those type of memory can be read and changed in any order.

What does DIMM mean when it comes to RAM sticks?

It means dual in-line memory module. This type of computer memory is natively 64 bits, enabling fast data transfer.

I have 24 DIMMS ram slots on my server. Can I use them all?

Be careful when installing memory on a server. Always check your server's documentation to make sure your RAM sticks combination are correct.

For example, on the Dell R720, you can have 24x16gb RAM ECC sticks, but it can only handle 16 Quad ranked DIMMs. In this case, you can fill up all slots with registered DIMMs if you have a maximum of 4 quad DIMMS ranked on each CPU.

Ask a Question to the ThreeFold Community

If you have any question, you can ask the ThreeFold community via the ThreeFold forum or the ThreeFold Telegram channels:

Note 1: If we wrote something wrong, tell us!

Note 2: This is a collective effort. A big Thank You to the great ThreeFold Community. Many Q+A are contributions from the enthusiast farmers, users and developers of the ever-growing ThreeFold community.

Last change: 2024-03-05